Polonium Halos in Deep Earth Granite
Traditional science says that earth was formed from molten
matter from stars and it was cooled down slowly - overy billions of years.
Then Robert Gentry discovered
one of the most intriguing mystery that
challenges the traditional theory of the "creation of the earth".
Gentry discovered Polonium Halos in granite rocks which
CANNOT have formed if the earth cools down
over billions of years....
There has not been any satisfactory explanation for this discovery,
except one: that the earth was formed in a solid form within
Halos and How halos are formed
- A very interesting discovery
- Working with microscopes in the late 1800s,
scientists found small halos in granite.
These are tiny, colored concentric circles
("concentric" means circles within circles, as in a bull's eye).
When cut exactly through the middle of the halo,
there would be a small grain in the center.
It was found that the halos were tiny spheres etched
in the rock around the central grain.
Notice also the different patterns in the halos !!!
(This will be very important)
- What causes these halos ???
It was not until radioactive elements were discovered,
about the beginning of our century, that scientists realized
that these grains and their halos were the result of
- Radio-active decay:
- Elements heavier that Lead (Pb) are
the nuclei of such elements
decay (break apart)
into different elements
- There are 2 types of radio active decays:
- Alpha decay:
the unstable nucleus decays by splitting off an
which is basically a Helium nucleus (2 neutrons and 2 protons)
- Beta decay:
the unstable nucleus decays by splitting off a
which is an electron - one of the neutrons in the nucleus
turns into a proton.
- How are the halos formed:
- Working earlier in the century, John Joly,
an Irish researcher, tried to figure out the cause of these halos.
Joly discovered it was only the alpha particles could make
the halos. The halos are formed where the alpha particles stop
- Granite contains various kinds of crystals.
When the crystaline structure is damaged, it becomes colored.
- The beta decay splits off an electron and this particle
is too energy-starved to damage the crystal structure in granite.
- On the other hand, the alpha decay
that splits off a Helium nucleus,
is of very high energy and it can
damage the crystal structure of the granite
- The distance
traveled by the alpha particle in the alpha decay
depends on the original speed (which depends on how unstable
the radio-active element is).
traveled by the alpha particle is
As a result, the alpha particles will damage rock atoms that
form a sphere
with the center being the unstable material:
- Necessary conditions to form radio-halos:
- Summary on HOW radio-halos are formed:
- These halos are called "radio-halos" because it is caused by
- Radio halos are formed when radio-active matter are included
in solidified rock - the alpha decay of the the radio-active matter
damages the crystal structure in the rock.
- Facts you need to understand the necessary condition to forming halos:
- Halos cannot form in molten rock - molten rock does not have any
- If a rock containing radio-halos is melted, the halos structures
will be erased.
- Necessary condition to form radio-halos:
- Radio-active material must first enter the rock before
the rock becomes solid
- because you cannot put any material into a solid rock
(example: how can you put a bean inside an ice-cube ?
You put the bean inside water and then freeze it)
- Halos can only form when the radio-active decay is going on
after the rock has become solid (has crystal structure)
Some technical stuff: decay chain and half life
- Decay Chains
- A radioactive element (the "parent" element")
changes into another one (a "daughter element").
- The new daughter element can be radio-active and it can
change into another element.
The whole thing is called a decay chain
(each member of the chain is called an isotope).
- There are many radioactive isotopes in nature,
but only three are at the very top of decay chains
- Thorium-232 (See the Th-232 decay chain:
- Uranuim-235 (See the U-235 decay chain:
- Uranuim-238 (See the U-238 decay chain:
We will pay special attention to the uranium 238 chain,
because the mystery halos are
- Half life
- When radio-active material decays, it turns into a different material
- The time it takes to loose half of its original amount of
material is called half life
For example, Uranium-238 has a half life of 4,5 billion years.
That means that if you had 1 lb of U-238,
then after 4,5 billion years, you will have 0.5 lb of U-238 left.
Different radio-active elements have different half lives.
Some have very long half lives, like U-238, but other have
very short half lives, like Polonium-214: 164 microseconds
(you can't blink this fast)
- Knowing the half life of a radio-active element is important, because
most of the radio-active material will be gone after 10 half lives
(210 1024, so you have less than 0.1% from the original
amount of material left)
Polonium Halos and their implications
- Example: Halo formed
by Uranium 238 as parent material
- Recall that only alpha decays make halos in the rock
- The following are alpha decays in the U-238 decay chain:
The elements in red
decays by emitting an
- Recall that the distance traveled by the alpha
particle depends on how unstable the radio-active element is
- So if the original inclusion matter was Uranium-238,
the decay chain will emit eight different
alpha particle and
after a long long time,
you will see eight
Here's a photo of a Uranium-238 halo:
Note that some halos (e,g, U-234 and Ra 226)
are so close to others that they form one halos.
- Polonium - 218 Halos
( click here)
found that granite rock contained zillions of the following halo:
- The Implications of Polonium-238 halos
- So what the big deal about these Polonium-218 halos ???
Well, it would not be anything special if some other element
(like U-238) was originally embedded in the rock when it was formed....
But the fact that the ORIGINAL material was Polonium-218
make every difference, because of the decay sequence and
the half-time of Polonium-218.
- The following table shows the half time and the sequence
of the decay of Uranium-238 which includes all 3 Polonium isotopes:
Decay Sequence of Uranium-238
- And what does this all mean ???
- Here in lies the problem for the traditional Big Bang theory -
it proposes a hot earth and cooled down
VERY SLOWLY -
it took BILLIONS of years to cool,
not just 30 minutes !!!
Hear more on this controversial topic
from a Dr. Donald Chittick:
- BTW - the reason that you have not heard about this highly
controversial theory is because the main stream science is
hedging for the Big Bang theory.
Gentry has done this research back in the 1970's.
Gentry's discovery of the Polonium halos have been published in
main stream science journals -
see: click here
Yet, no one is talking about this "nature's tiny mystery" ??? Why ???
Nobody can explain why these Polonium halos are doing in the
BTW, there are some
article on the Internet that
"refute" the Polonium halos finding,
but these article
did not make it into Science publications
- according to Gentry, these articles try to
"hoodwink the unwary" -
see: click here .
- It is only now that a number of Creation Science organization
is publicizing his work.
Gentry's website has a lot more material on
Polonium Halos: click here
Watch the Video that Gentry made on Polonium Halos:
- When you view the video, pay attention to this finding (at around 15 mins
into the video):
Gentry reported that he had specifically tested whether the
halos were caused by primordial polunium
(i.e., starting with Polonium as initial element,
in other words: the polonium was NOT a product of radio-active decay).
Gentry used a ion microprobe to analyze the different atoms
(which are the remnant of radio active decay)
at the center of the Polonium halos.
His experiments showed conclusively that the halos were made
by primordial polunium
(in other words: the polonium that caused these halos
were not the result of radio-active decay)
- There are several attemps to "explain" the Polonium halos.
Here are some articles and Gentry's responses:
- Geologist Paul Damon:
- Damon's work appeared in EOS and his main objection is
not the finding of Gentry, but the
apparent consequence of the finding... mainly: if the halos
found by Gentry are indeed
primordial (i.e., starting with Polonium as initial element,
in other words: the polonium was NOT a product of radio-active decay),
then the earth has solidified in mere minutes... and
the "long cooling hypothesis" that most geologists hold dearly
would go down the toilet....
- Gentry's response can be found at:
Damon agrees that my observations on polonium halos are "apparently valid,"
but he rejects the possibility that they are of primordial origin without
offering an alternative explanation.
Some times, God back you into a corner and you have no alternative explanation...
There are those would will then admit to the existence of God
(for example, the long long time and well-known atheist Antony Flew
( click here ) became
a deist after he was backed into a corner by the inexplicable fact that
a vast amount of
coded information is
stored in the DNA (how was the code invented ???
how did information get there ???) -
there are those will keep insisting otherwise....
Interestingly, God has foretold about them as "2 Timothy 7" described them
to the letter.
These people will appear in the "last days" and they will be like this:
but never able to acknowledge the truth.
Now that's what I call "fulfilled prophecy"... Amazing...
Then again, God is amazing...
- Derek York: see -
- Feather: see -
- An article by Baillieul that tries to refute the evidence
of the Polonimum halos can be found at:
- Gentry's reply to this article can be found here:
- Notable difference between these articles and Gentry's work is
the places that the works are published:
- Gentry's work appeared in
peer-reviewed science journals -
see: click here
- Baillieul's article is
only available on the Internet...
- According to Gentry:
Briefly, to begin, those who are claiming to have found
a natural explanation of polonium halos in granites
are trying to hoodwink the unwary. They are misrepresenting the facts.
The reason evolutionists and others
post objections on the Internet
(anyone can do that, even a DOG :-))
they cannot get any reputable scientific journal
to publish their claims.
The journal editors know their claims
are spurious. And were they to be published, the same editors
know it would only expose the huge fallacies in their claims
- The evidence clearly favors Gentry: basically,
Gentry challenged them to step up to the plate and
start a debate in a peer-reviewed
(the rebuttal works on halos are published on
the Internet (no review at all) or in
- So far, Gentry has no luck... that really make you wonder
how "scientific" these
criticisms on Gentry's halo work really are....
- Polonium as a result of radon decay
- Another explanation of the polonium halos is "wandering radon" - see
point 3 in
- Their logic is as follows:
- Radium decays to Radon-222 and Radon is a gas - it can move
through cracks in the granite
- Radon is initially negatively charged (because it was formed by
radium emitting a positively charged alpha particle, so the radon formed will
have a surplus of electrons) and The negatively charged Radon gas
could diffuse and gather at a "positively charged" location...
- Then Radon decays to Po-218; and voila - Polonium halos...
- This explanation has a lot of holes:
- If the Radon did gather to a single "positively charged" location and
did decay into Po-218;
the alpha particle emitted by Radon-222 (when it decays to Po-218)
would have form an extra ring in the halos
Some articles did report a "fuzzy" radon ring in the sharply visible
Polonium halos - but they did not reason further, so let me do that here:
if the radon ring is "fuzzy", the most likely cause is: random location
of decaying radon atoms. The result of this is randomly situated
Polonium-218 atoms. The consequence of this is: a undetectable smear
instead of sharply visible concentrated Polonium halos.
(The discoloration will only happen by billions of
Po-218 decays concentrated in a single spot - without high concentration,
it will be a undetectable smear).
- Although Rason-222 is initially negatively charged (because Radiun-226
emitted 2 positive protons away when it decayed into Radon-222),
the Radon-222 will lose the extra (2) electrons when it
collides with other molecules. Especially if the negatively charged Radon-222
is "directed towards a positively charged" location - Radon-222 will shet
After shedding the excess electrons, the radon gas is neutral and
diffusion will make the radon gas go in every possble direction and
will not "gather" at a negatively charged spot.
Bottomline: radon gas will not accummulate in a single spot -
and without high concentration of Po-218 in a single spot, you don't
get halos (the discoloration will only happen by billions of
Po-218 decays concentrated in a single spot - without high concentration,
it will be a undetectable smear)
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