A biblical and scientific refutation of91Progressive Creationism (billions of years).
New eyes for blind cave fish?
|Time and chance can't explain life's amazing design=97get your answers here!|
Not By Chance!
But this classic example of mutation/selection causing adaptation to a new environment is also a classic example of a mutation causing a downhill change. It is not showing us how the first stages of a new, complex adaptation could arise, it is merely showing us how complex information coding for great engineering design is being corrupted or lost. The grand-scale theory of evolution97 that microbes have become millipedes, magnolias, and microbiologists97 demands that huge amounts of new information, of true genetic novelty, have arisen over millions of years. To show such information arising from natural processes is the real challenge for evolution. It is a challenge which the renowned Darwinist Richard Dawkins was unable to answer, as shown in the video Frog to a Prince (see top right; as well as refutation of Skeptic s attack and refutation of Dawkins later response).
Even if one tiny example could be found where information had arisen by chance mutation, Dr Lee Spetners classic bookNot By Chance (see left; as well as this review) shows that neo-Darwinian theory requires literally hundreds to be observable today. So far, all the examples studied (including the handful of helpful defects, like the loss of eyes in cave fish, or wingless beetles on windy islands [see Beetle Bloopers]) show a loss of information.
The fascinating experiment (by researchers from
University of Maryland, USA) that has brought blind cave fish back
the news was one in which young eyeless fish had lenses implanted
from the same species of fish (Astyanax mexicanus) living
surface. Eight days later, the blind fish seemed to be regrowing
After two months, they had a large restored eye with a distinct
cornea and iris. In addition, the retina of the restored eye
The researchers are not saying that the fish developed sight, which would require regrowth of nerve connections to the brain and more. This experiment is of great interest in helping us understand more about the pathways by which genes express the development of certain structures in the embryo. The following may be helpful in understanding what has taken place:
It has long been known that during the development of certain frog embryos, for instance, the lens not only appears first, it acts as an inducer of the development of most of the rest of the eye. Thus, if the lens from one embryo is surgically embedded into another embryo at a spot different from where the eye normally develops, an eye will start to form at that location.
Both in the above example, and that of the cave fish, the development of the eye structures can only take place if the organism into which the lens is transplanted has the genetic instructions present in its DNA to manufacture such structures.
This indicates that the mutation by which the fish initially became eyeless did not somehow delete all of the eye information, but just interfered with the process leading to the eyes development. An analogy with computers would be deleting files on a computer97 the information is not deleted, just the record of its location on the hard disk. If the data as such were not still there, undelete programs would not be possible.
In the example here, the mutation most probably just blocked the proper formation of the lens. Without the lens to induce the rest of the eye to form, it wont. This is supported by the fact that in the embryos of eyeless cave fish, eyes start to form, but the lens that has started to form deteriorates, and the other structures remain undeveloped.
This is the first time, to my knowledge, that such optic induction experiments have been successful on any organism in a post-embryonic stage. As such it is important in future embryological research into the immensely ingenious, complex, and still very poorly understood, processes by which an adult organism develops from a tiny fertilized egg.
Sadly, though not surprisingly, this has been
such a way as to promote the evolution is fact idea97 even
though it has
nothing to do with demonstrating that microbes could turn into man
shown, the change is in the opposite direction required).
been described as Eye parts lost during millions of years of
were restored in just a matter of days.
We have already seen that it is misleading to describe the loss of
ability to produce eyes as evolution, because it gives rise to
impression that it has something to do with how there came to be
things as fish with eyes in the first place. In addition, there is
slightest bit of evidence that the process of losing them took
years. In fact, it would be surprising if it took more than a few
generations, or just a few short years, given the scenario
Indeed, considering the supposed creative power of evolution, it is remarkable that these fish, allegedly separated for millions of years, are so near-identical to those living at the surface that even evolutions most hardened true believers concede that they should be given the same species name. The notion that they have not been cut off from each other for anywhere near as long, directly fits the facts.
A recent example is Jerry Coyne, an evolutionist from the University of Chicago, who reviewed Niles Eldredges anti-creationist book The Triumph of Evolution in the Chicago Tribune, July 30, 2000 Sunday, Books; Pg. 4. Among other things, Coyne berated Eldredge for not mentioning some of the classic and most powerful arguments for evolution [including] the nonfunctional eyes of cave organisms, which evolved from sighted creatures. Return to text.
both last accessed 9 August 2000. Return to text.
Ref. 2. Return to text.